A stock remains within a price range of about 10% of its selling price for a
long period of time that could be from several weeks to many months. If it
breaks out to the upside the experts will tell you there has been a long
period of Accumulation; however, if it breaks out to the downside the same
experts will tell you there has been a period of Distribution. The experts
donít know. Donít listen to them.
A report usually made a by a CPA firm that tells you what the company has
been doing with your money. Shows annual sales, balance sheets, operating
statements, earnings (if any) and lots of complicated footnotes that very
few people understand. The footnotes are where they hide all the stuff they
don't want you to know. Most of these numbers reflect what went on over a
whole year and are therefore distorted by the time pattern. Basically
worthless. It would be useful if you want to buy their business or loan them
money but has no bearing on which way the stock price is headed.
The lowest price at which an investor is willing to sell ó stocks, bonds,
options, commodities or anything else for that matter.
The price that you paid for the shares including all fees and commissions.
Mainly for tax purposes.
The smallest measure for quoting yields on bonds; one basis point is .01
percent of the yield of the bond. Also used to quote interest rates. One
hundred basis points is equal to one percent, 50 basis points is equal to Ĺ
Any time the stock market as a whole as measured by the Dow Jones Industrial
Average or the Standard & Poorís 500 Index loses 20% or more of itsí value.
You don't want to be in the market during these times.
A measure of volatility.
Mathematical equations used to determine the valuation of options. Too
complicated for my head. If they really worked all option traders would be
The highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase a security.
Blue Chip Stock
This is supposed to be the highest quality stock on the market, but you can
still lose money with them. This is more of the smoke and mirrors mystique.
There is only one type of "blue chip" stock and that is the one that goes up
after you buy it. All the rest are dogs.
The historical derivation goes back to the old, days when you played poker
and the most expensive chips on the tables were blue.
A certificate which sets forth the amount of money you have lent a company
or the government along with the terms and conditions of repayment.
The total of all the companyís assets less the intangible assets and
liabilities such as bonds. The final figure might be more or less than the
market value of the company.
One who makes you broker. Especially if you take his advice. Remember, he
works on commission.
Brilliant Strategy. Barbara Streisand. Brown Stuff. Whatever. Words of
"advice" from your broker or financial planner.
The price paid for the shares when purchased. If you paid 40Ĺ for 100 shares
it adds up to $4,050. Of course you are going to have to add on the
commission and fees that might come to several hundred dollars more
depending upon the brokerage house. Discount brokersí commissions are much
lower and if you learn how to trade on the Internet, it will be even lower.
Call option. The right to purchase a certain companyís shares at a certain
fixed price some time in the future no matter what the price of that
security is at that time. You need not exercise this right should the
security value be less and you may sell it any time prior to the expiration
CD, Certificate of Deposit
A debt instrument usually issued for a period of less than 5 years that pays
interest only and the full sum at maturity. This is not what you want if you
are building toward a retirement account. Many times it will not keep up
with the rate of inflation.
Closed-end Mutual Fund
This type of fund sells only a fixed number of shares. The fund is then
traded like a stock. It is listed in the stock section of the newspaper, not
with the mutual funds. Most of these funds sell at a discount to the sum
total of the shares. It is rare to see them sell at full value, but once in
a while they may even sell at a premium. I donít recommend them.
The vig. The juice. What the broker extracts from you for performing the
service of purchasing and registering the stocks you purchase in your name.
The less you pay the better for you.
The right to purchase at today's price a particular food item, metal or
financial instrument to be delivered to you according to contract
specifications at some specific time and place in the future. It might be
wheat, pork bellies (thatís uncured bacon), gold, treasury bills, oil,
lumber, stock indexes, foreign currencies, etc. This is not where you want
to put you retirement funds. For pros only or those who have more money than
Another Wall Street euphemism for the market going down the sewer. A
downward move of less than 20% (thatís a bear). If you are concerned and
call your broker he will always tell you this is a correction and the market
will come back. Right? Many corrections are in the 10 to 15% category. When
the market is at Dow 10,000, it means the market can drop more than 1,000
points and still be in an up trend. Follow the signals in this book and you
will sleep peacefully at night.
When a security is split into its parts and each part then sold as a
separate item. A zero coupon bond stripped of the dividends and is sold at a
discount representing the time value of the bond to maturity. Derivatives
are more dangerous than commodity futures; the leverage is sometimes 100
times the price paid. Stay away. You can become bankrupt with these.
Opposite of accumulation. See above. This is the wild part of the market and
many times distribution will be in a 20% trading range for several months
before it tanks.
An amount paid to a shareholder of the company stock that represents a
distribution of part of the profits of the company. I donít pay any
attention to dividends as I am more interested in price appreciation. Many
company stocks go up that have never paid any dividends. An overrated reason
to buy a stock.
DJIA Dow Jones Industrial Average
Also called the Dow, the Dow 30. Comprised of 30 large company stocks
trading on the New York Stock Exchange and is the best known of all U.S.
indexes. There are hundreds of indexes not just for stocks, but for
everything including, bonds, currencies, commodities and on and on.Each
foreign exchange has several. I like the S&P 500 better. See S&P.
Advice from a broker.
Anyone who takes advice from a broker.
One who knows all about everything in the local, national and world
economies, but knows nothing about how to apply it to practical
situations. The last one to ever consult for investments.
EPS Earnings Per Share
The total of company profits divided by the number of shares. Each day in
the Investorís Business Daily newspaper you will find this figure in the
stock listings as a ranking of where the stock stands in relation to all
other stocks on that exchange. You donít want to own any stock with a rating
of less than 80. Also note that just because it may have a high rating does
not guarantee it is going to up. See RS, relative strength as a companion to
Where securities orders of listed companies are matched with buyer and
seller. The big exchanges are the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the
National Association of Securities Dealers (NASDQ). Both are usually quoted
on the nightly news. Unlisted securities are sold Over The Counter (OTC) by
your broker by certain brokerage houses that Ďmake the marketí in that
particular issue. Transfer of ownership need not be done through an
exchange; you may sell the stock certificate to another person by merely
endorsing the certificate on the back.
Fed Funds Rate
Actually Federal Funds Rates are set by the Federal Reserve Board. The
amount of interest charged by one bank to another bank when it loans money
on overnight transactions. This is the Feds way of trying to micromanage the
Many times referred to as the total number of shares outstanding and
available for trading. Actually most shares are squirreled away and not
traded. The true float is a certain percentage of the outstanding shares
that are actively traded. This number will vary widely from issue to issue.
Usually the smaller the float, the more violent the price action and wider
The highest price that a security, stock or option sells at during a
specific time frame such hour, day, week, month, year or longer.
This is another term for smoke and mirrors. You will receive advertising for
a system some highbinder is trying to sell you with a table of big profits
from trading his method. In fact, it has a money back guarantee, but not on
what you lost using it. At the bottom is an asterisk * with very fine print
that tells you the results are fictitious. Trash it.
The officers and directors of the company or anyone who owns more than 10%
of the outstanding stock which means he has "inside" information that may be
used for trading purposes. For listed securities these people are required
to report their purchases and sales to the Securities and Exchange
Commission that publishes them in a special bulletin that you may order at
no charge. There are several advisory services that compile these numbers
with comments. Another technical tool. If I were an "insider" Iíd have an
account in my wifeís name at a Swiss brokerage house. Iím sure glad those
folks are so honest and report everything.
IPO Initial Public Offering
Stock being offered for the first time to the public with the issuance of a
prospectus. And lots of hype by the selling broker. You know what I have to
say about both of these in the preceding pages. Nothing positive.
Keep It Simple Stupid. The best trading systems, whether mathematical,
psychological or technical, follow this method. The more complicated the
method the less likely it is to work.
A long term option usually going out more than one year
Load - No-Load
Commission. Many times as high as 8Ĺ%. If you buy $10,000 worth of a load
fund with 8Ĺ% commission you pay $850 to the broker. You now have $9,150
invested. Most people figure the market has to go up 8.5% to get "even".
Wrong. It actually takes more than a 9.25% increase to get you almost even.
I donít like starting this deep in a hole. Donít buy load funds; there are
too many good no-load funds that do not charge any commission. There are
also many low-load funds; I donít even buy these. Some funds such as
Fidelity charge a one time low-load commission and then allow you to switch
from fund to fund within the Fidelity group at no commission charge. There
is no correlation showing that a commission fund performs better than a
no-load fund. Your broker will tell you this but he is lying.
The buyers, owners of the security.
The lowest price that a security, stock or option sell for during a specific
time such as minute, day, month, year, etc.
A brokerage company will lend money at their broker loan rate to purchase
additional shares using a certain percent of the value of your stocks.
Currently it is 50%. If you have $100,000 in marketable securities in your
account you may purchase up to $50,000 of additional shares in the same or
other companies. I donít recommend this. Also a margin account gives your
brokerage company the right to loan your securities to people who are
Market Value of the Company
Also Market Cap or Market Capitalization. The price of the shares times the
number of outstanding shares of the company. Pretty much a meaningless
figure, but the "experts" all talk about it. I canít see how knowing this
will ever make you any money.
A fund composed of short term interest bearing government bonds, T-Bills or
commercial paper. A good, safe place to park your money during a bear
The sum of a number computed by adding up all the closing prices of the
stock, bond or mutual fund for a period of time, such as 200 days, and then
dividing by 200 to give you the 200 day moving average which is plotted
daily to form a line on a chart. Any time period may be used such as 10
days, 50 days, etc. When two moving averages with different periods of time
are used to create lines that cross this is called an oscillator.
A bond issued by a state or local government usually, but not necessarily
for, a specific project. Many, not all, are tax exempt.
Something kept in the dark and fed brown stuff. Customer.
A company organized under the rules and regulations of the Securities and
Exchange Commission that collects money from various individuals, companies
or other entities in order to invest in stocks, bonds and/or other types of
securities. The share price of an open-end mutual fund will change daily as
to the total net asset value divided by the number of shares outstanding.
Net Asset Value
In the paper it is listed as NAV. The total value of all assets in a mutual
fund ? cash, stocks, bonds ó divided by the total number of shares
The use of two or more differently computed moving averages to create
crossover patterns that give buy and sell signals.
P/E Price/Earnings Ratio
The price of the stock divided by the earnings of the stock. This can be
over any period of time even a future projection, but usually refers to the
past year. If a stock is selling for $100 and has earned $10 for the past
year it has a P/E of 10. Many stocks have P/Eís of 30, 40, 50 or more which
makes them more ďspeculativeĒ. The higher the P/E the riskier the stock is
Put option. The opposite of a call option. The right to sell a fixed number
of shares of a certain security at some time in the future at a designated
price. You may or may not own the stock when the put is issued.
RS Relative Strength
A number that describes the comparative strength of a particular stock to
other stocks. Investorís Business Daily newspaper publishes a number that
identifies a particular stock in relation to all other stocks on that
exchange. You should not own a stock with an RS of less than 70. For
example, a stock with a rank of 83 means it has a stronger upward price
movement than 83% of all other stocks. Do you want to own a stock with a
rating of 40, 33, 17 or any number less than 70? Any stock with a rating of
less than 70 is a dog.
Securities that represent equity ownership. Most of them traded on the major
exchanges are common shares. The fancier the name the more complicated the
You sell what you donít own by borrowing the security from someone you donít
know at the brokerage house to sell to another person you donít know because
you think the price will go down so you can pay the guy you donít know who
you borrowed the stock from. You have looked into the future and said I want
to buy this $40 stock at a lower price so Iíll sell it today and buy it when
it goes down to $30 or whatever. Let me warn you. If it keeps going up you
can be in deep do-do. This is one time you better have a buy stop in place.
Markets go down about three times faster that they go up. I like the short
side, but it is not for everyone.
S & P Standard & Poorís 500
This index is composed of 500 different stocks traded on the New York Stock
Exchange, but it is weighted by the size of the company that is claimed by
the "experts" to be a drawback to its accuracy; however, itís following is
quoted almost as much as the Dow 30. These same "experts" say it is poorly
weighted so it is a poor indicator and should not be used as a gauge of
their mutual fund performance. Yet they are the first ones to shout from the
top of the Empire State building that they beat the S&P500. Hey, guys, you
can't have it both ways.
Social Security Trust Fund
There ainít no such thing. This is ĎWashingtonspeakí for your taxes going
into the general fund that the politicians spend any way they want to. It is
merely a governmental Ponzi scheme and will die of its own weight or be cut
back severely some time in the future.
The difference between the bid and asked prices of a stock, option or other
security. I have seen so-called spreads advocated in stock trading, but not
with my money.
In commodities you may buy or sell a near option and buy or sell the distant
option having two positions, long one and short the other. Money is made or
lost as the spread widens or narrows depending on your position and market
There are both sell stops and buy stops. If you own a stock and wish to
limit your loss to a specific amount, or to exit your position should the
stock take an unexpected tumble, you may place an order with the broker to
sell when the stock trades at a specified price. For example you bought a
stock at $28 and it is now trading at $44. You may place a GTC Stop at $40.
GTC means Good Until Cancelled and also called an Open Order. If the stock
trades at or below the $40 price, you will be filled at the next trade
price. You are not guaranteed the $40 price. Should the market open sharply
lower the next day you will be filled in the opening range even if it might
be at $30. I have had it happen to me. If you feel you have been ripped off
you may request a "Time & Sales Report" from your broker which shows every
trade and the time the trade was executed along with the time your order was
entered and the time it took to get to the floor. Sometimes an adjustment
will be made.
The price agreed upon in the call or put. If a stock is selling at
$25/share, you might purchase a call with a strike price of $25, say 90 days
in the future. You think the stock price is going to advance over the next
60 days and you wish to be able to purchase shares at that time at the $25
price. $25 is the strike price. Of course, you will pay a premium for this
privilege, but if the stock advances substantially it should be a very
The letters used to designate a particular security. In mutual funds the
symbol for Rydex Ursa Fund is RYURX, for General Motors it is GM.
The number of shares or contracts traded between buyer and seller during any
period of time designated.
Valuation is in the mind of the beholder. Various experts who write market
advisory letters and investment columns for brokerage houses have some weird
way of figuring that some stocks are undervalued or overvalued. One Ďexpertí
will say a stock is Ďundervaluedí and another Ďexpertí at a different
brokerage house will tell you that same stock is Ďovervaluedí. The value of
a stock is what it sells for that day even though tomorrow the same issue
may be selling for more or less. Part of the Greater Fool Theory.
The wild gyrations of price either in the general market or individual
issues. As we used to say, "Thereís blood in the pit today".
The number of shares traded during a specific time period ó minute, hour,
day month, year or longer.
Zero Coupon Bond
A debt instrument that pays no interest. It is sold at a discount price that
depends upon the time to maturity and the rate of interest quoted.